An official statement did not say what kind of missile was tested or when it was sacked, only saying it happened "recently".
China had described repeated nuclear tests by North Korea in a mountainous region near its border as a "threat".
China's military has conducted live-fire drills and weapons tests in the northeastern Bohai Sea close to the Korean peninsula, the country's defense ministry said on Tuesday.
The Chinese weapon tested was likely a DF-26 intermediate range missile being developed to sink warships, including USA aircraft carriers, said Song Zhongping, an expert on military affairs and commentator for Hong Kong's Phoenix TV.
The US military has installed an anti-missile defense system in South Korea to deter the North, but China sees the deployment as a threat to the regional security balance and its own ballistic missile capabilities.More news: Harry Styles respects young fans' opinions on his new music
It was unclear from the announcement when the missile test took place, but Beijing waited until the end of South Korea's presidential election to make the launch public, Yonhap reported. THAAD became operational last week, achieving "initial intercept capability", according to NBC News.
Our positions should be judged not for what Trump proclaims but by the reality of China's activities.
Beijing and Pyongyang have a relationship forged in the blood of the Korean War, and the Asian giant remains its wayward neighbour's main provider of aid and trade.
In a rare rebuke, North Korea had accused China of "dancing to the tune of the US" and "stomping on a red line" in relations after it had backed calls for more sanctions on Kim Jong-un's regime. The column also mentioned an article by Doug Bandow, senior fellow at the Cato Institute, titled "Strategic impatience won't defeat North Korea", which ran in the bimonthly American journal the National Interest, and said that "Bandow's assessment is accurate".
In a televised inaugural speech, Moon said he will visit Pyongyang under right conditions and fly to Washington if necessary.